• Coaches Corner: Lactate Threshold – Science and Data Wonkery

    by  • June 6, 2013 • tech

    NathanAbout Coach Nate Dunn: Nate Dunn has always been passionate about understanding human performance.  What started as a fascination with heart rate monitors in high school led to the completion of his Masters Degree in Kinesiology/Exercise Science from CSUS and the founding of his cycling coaching business Data Driven Athlete.  He can typically be found reading exercise physiology research, talking excitedly about athletic performance with clients, or backpacking around the NorCal wilderness with his wife and young daughter.

    Lactate Threshold.  What is it and why does it matter?  In this post I’ll seek to answer these two questions with the hopes of clarifying a somewhat confusing topic.  Warning: A slight bit of science and data wonkery ahead.

    What is the lactate threshold (LT)?

    Put simply, the lactate threshold is the point at which your body can no longer maintain equilibrium between lactate production and clearance (Gore & Australian Sports Commission., 2000, p. 53). The current trend in exercise physiology is to split the lactate threshold into two parts, LT1 and LT2.  LT1 is typically recognized as the workload (given in watts) corresponding to a sustained increase in blood lactate concentration above resting levels (typically below 2.0 mmol/L) during progressive exercise (see graphic below).  LT2 is the workload corresponding to a rapid rise in blood lactate signifying the upper limit of sustainable exercise, typically around a blood lactate concentration of 4.0 mmol/L (see graphic below).

    This LT2 workload is roughly related to the intensity one might experience in a 60 minute time trial (Billat, Sirvent, Py, Koralsztein, & Mercier, 2003).  The LT2’s close relationship with sustained power outputs (think climbing and time trialing) is the reason it is the threshold most commonly referenced in current training methodologies and cycling jargon (Allen & Coggan, 2010, pp. 40-48).  While over 15 different labels describing the “lactate threshold” exist in the exercise science literature (Gore & Australian Sports Commission., 2000, p. 53), the LT2 is the definition that has emerged as the most applicable to endurance performance.

    In short, if you’re hearing someone describe their lactate threshold, anaerobic threshold, maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) or functional threshold power (FTP), they’re probably referencing what is currently understood as the Lactate Threshold 2 (LT2).  Take a look below for a typical blood lactate curve from a hypothetical lactate threshold test.

     Lactate Threshold

      

    Why does it matter?

    There are three primary reasons why you should be interested in the lactate threshold (Gore & Australian Sports Commission., 2000, p. 51)

    1. The LT2 and endurance performance are closely related (i.e., by increasing your LT2 you can score more Velo Promo t-shirts and Gu packets).
    2. Understanding your LT2 helps to precisely identify and prescribe potentially optimal training intensities (e.g., allows you to maximize your available training time).
    3. Your LT2 is an objective measure of your progress on the bike (i.e., you’re either getting stronger or you’re not, no guesswork here).

    As you can see, identifying and understanding your LT2 (or FTP for the TrainingPeaks initiated) can be a powerful means to more clearly understand your performance, accurately prescribe training intensities, and objectively measure your progress on the bike.  In the next post we’ll discuss several ways to determine your LT2 without laboratory testing as well as how to use Strava as an effective “low-tech” training tool in the absence of a power meter.

    Citations and Sources

    Allen, H., & Coggan, A. (2010). Training and racing with a power meter (2nd ed.). Boulder, Colo.: VeloPress.

    Billat, V. L., Sirvent, P., Py, G., Koralsztein, J. P., & Mercier, J. (2003). The concept of maximal lactate steady state: a bridge between biochemistry, physiology and sport science. Sports Med, 33(6), 407-426.

    Gore, C. J., & Australian Sports Commission. (2000). Physiological Tests For Elite Athletes. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    If you are a coach or have a technical topic you are interested in contributing to NorCal Cycling News contact Ted Burns at norcal at love dot com.   

     

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